SPATIAL DIFFERENCES IN MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN SPRINGS IN SOUTHEASTERN ONTARIO IN RELATION TO THEIR CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

Citation
Dd. Williams et al., SPATIAL DIFFERENCES IN MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN SPRINGS IN SOUTHEASTERN ONTARIO IN RELATION TO THEIR CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS, Canadian journal of zoology, 75(9), 1997, pp. 1404-1414
Citations number
52
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Zoology
Journal title
ISSN journal
0008-4301
Volume
75
Issue
9
Year of publication
1997
Pages
1404 - 1414
Database
ISI
SICI code
0008-4301(1997)75:9<1404:SDIMCS>2.0.ZU;2-J
Abstract
This study examined the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of 20 sp rings in southeastern Ontario in relation to major water chemical vari ables and temperature. Significant differences were evident among the spring communities, and a TWINSPAN classification showed three major g roups, which were associated with different levels of urbanization and water chemical conditions. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) or dinations indicated that the major environmental gradient was related to temperature and NH4 and to two springs adjacent to a landfill site. CCA ordination of a sub-data set excluding these latter two sites tog ether with 3 closely related variables better illustrated the response of spring communities to different levels of urbanization. The strong est relationship to emerge was that between taxon occurrences and chlo ride, a major contaminant in groundwater in the study area and believe d to be derived from road salt. Several taxa were closely associated w ith high chloride levels (e.g., Tipulidae and Ceratopogonidae), wherea s others occurred only in springs with low chloride levels (e.g., Gamm arus pseudolimnaeus and Turbellaria). The possibility of using spring macroinvertebrates as biological indicators of chloride contamination of groundwater is discussed.