We use household and community data from the Philippines to estimate a
multilevel model of contraceptive use. We go beyond previous efforts
in this field by developing a structural model that recognizes joint e
ndogeneity and the temporal ordering of variables, by considering a wi
der range of community influences on fertility behavior and by employi
ng an econometric procedure allowing for a multilevel error structure.
The results suggest that there are significant effects on fertility b
ehavior of community-level family planning services, labor-market cond
itions, and infrastructure development. These results provide insights
regarding the structural determinants of contraceptive use and fertil
ity that are useful for drawing policy implications.