A woman with a long history of chronic bronchitis and chronic sinusitis, i.
e., sinobronchial syndrome, was admitted with a fever. Radiologically, ther
e were areas of longstanding consolidation in both lungs, with areas of act
ive inflammation demonstrated by gallium-67 scintigraphy, Antineutrophil cy
toplasmic antibody specific for myeloperoxidase was highly positive, Pulmon
ary hemorrhage and hematuria occurred 2 weeks after admission and responded
to steroid therapy. However the patient died of pneumonia, An autopsy reve
aled systemic necrotizing vasculitis affecting multiple organs, consistent
with microscopic polyangiitis, The vasculitis might have been caused by the
chronic inflammation in the lungs associated with sinobronchial syndrome.