Genotype by environment interactions in livestock breeding programs: A review

Authors
Citation
Hh. Montaldo, Genotype by environment interactions in livestock breeding programs: A review, INTERCIENCI, 26(6), 2001, pp. 229
Citations number
54
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Multidisciplinary
Journal title
INTERCIENCIA
ISSN journal
0378-1844 → ACNP
Volume
26
Issue
6
Year of publication
2001
Database
ISI
SICI code
0378-1844(200106)26:6<229:GBEIIL>2.0.ZU;2-1
Abstract
This review examines the types of genotype by environment interactions (GEI ) described in the literature as well as the biological-statistical evidenc e for GEI in animals. The methods for calculating the efficiency of selecti on within vs, across environments when the genetic correlations among genot ypes across environments are known are also described. The implications of GEI for animal breeding programs are discussed, with particular emphasis on tropical areas and developing countries. There is biological and statistic al evidence of GEI for many traits in most livestock species. The implicati ons of such interactions on the organization of more efficient animal breed ing programs are difficult to assess. Measures to counteract the negative e ffects of GEI on genetic response mag not produce the desired results, and may produce additional negative effects, such as a reduction in selection i ntensity and in effective size of the populations available for selection. Proper evaluation of the impact of GEI needs to consider the effects on tot al productivity rather than on individual traits. Increasing the number of studies at the commercial level will help in making breeding decisions unde r appropriate production conditions. The importance of GEI for livestock im provement in developing countries is likely to be underestimated by the ava ilable parameter estimates. because the data available for estimation are f requently obtained from research or elite herds with a better environment t han commercial farms. Identification of the major environmental factors ass ociated with GEI are needed to optimize testing in different environments f or hierarchical (nucleus) improvement schemes.