Stereoelectronic effects in the Si-C bond: A study of the molecular structure and conformation of tetraphenylsilane by gas-phase electron diffractionand theoretical calculations

Citation
Ar. Campanelli et al., Stereoelectronic effects in the Si-C bond: A study of the molecular structure and conformation of tetraphenylsilane by gas-phase electron diffractionand theoretical calculations, J PHYS CH A, 105(24), 2001, pp. 5933-5939
Citations number
62
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Physical Chemistry/Chemical Physics
Journal title
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A
ISSN journal
1089-5639 → ACNP
Volume
105
Issue
24
Year of publication
2001
Pages
5933 - 5939
Database
ISI
SICI code
1089-5639(20010621)105:24<5933:SEITSB>2.0.ZU;2-Y
Abstract
The molecular structure and conformation of tetraphenylsilane have been inv estigated by gas-phase electron diffraction and ab initio/DFT and molecular mechanics calculations. The structure of the free molecule is consistent w ith an Sq symmetry conformation; the calculations indicate that the twist a ngle tau between the plane of the phenyl group and the plane defined by the Si-C bond and the Sq axis is about 40 degrees. Analysis of the low-frequen cy modes indicates that the four phenyl groups undergo large-amplitude tors ional and bending vibrations about the respective Si-C bonds. The electron diffraction intensities from a previous study [Csakvari, E.; Shishkov, I. F .; Rozsondai, B.; Hargittai, I. J. Mel. Struct. 1990, 239, 291] have been r eanalyzed, using constraints from the calculations. A dynamical model accou nting for the large-amplitude bending motion of the phenyl groups was used in the refinement: The new analysis yields accurate values for the twist an gle of the phenyl group, tau = 40 +/- 2 degrees, and the Si-Ph bond length, r(g) = 1.881 +/- 0.004 Angstrom. The Si-Ph bond in tetraphenylsilane is ma rginally longer than the Si-Me bond in tetramethylsilane, r(g) = 1.877 +/- 0.004 Angstrom from the analysis of electron diffraction data taken with th e same apparatus. This contrasts with chemical expectation, which would sug gest a difference of 0.03 Angstrom in the opposite sense, based on the cova lent radii of C(sp(3)) and C(sp(2)). A delicate balance of subtle stereoele ctronic effects, involving electron delocalization into the sigma*-(Si-C) a nd 3d(Si) orbitals, appears to be responsible for the nearly equal length o f the Si-C bonds in the two molecules. Other bond lengths from the present electron diffraction study are <r(g)(C-C)> = 1.401 +/- 0.003 Angstrom and < r(g)(C-H)> = 1.102 +/- 0.003 Angstrom. The ipso ring angle of the phenyl gr oups is 117.5 degrees from the DFT calculations, in close agreement with so lid-state results.