Carbon dioxide emissions from the global cement industry

Citation
E. Worrell et al., Carbon dioxide emissions from the global cement industry, ANN R EN EN, 26, 2001, pp. 303-329
Citations number
60
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Environmental Engineering & Energy
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
ISSN journal
1056-3466 → ACNP
Volume
26
Year of publication
2001
Pages
303 - 329
Database
ISI
SICI code
1056-3466(2001)26:<303:CDEFTG>2.0.ZU;2-4
Abstract
The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissi ons, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitiga tion strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and energy-related emissions. Currently, most available data only includes the process emissions. We also discuss CO2 emission mitigation opt ions for the cement industry. Estimated total carbon emissions from cement production in 1994 were 307 million metric tons of carbon (MtC), 160 MtC fr om process carbon emissions, and 147 MtC from energy use. Overall, the top 10 cement-producing countries in 1994 accounted for 63% of global carbon em issions from cement production. The average intensity of carbon dioxide emi ssions from total global cement production is 222 kg of CA of cement. Emiss ion mitigation options include energy efficiency improvement, new processes , a shift to low carbon fuels, application of waste fuels, increased use of additives in cement making, and, eventually, alternative cements and CO2 r emoval from flue gases in clinker kilns.