Patterning mechanisms controlling vertebrate limb development

Citation
J. Capdevila et Jci. Belmonte, Patterning mechanisms controlling vertebrate limb development, ANN R C DEV, 17, 2001, pp. 87-132
Citations number
256
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Cell & Developmental Biology
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
ISSN journal
1081-0706 → ACNP
Volume
17
Year of publication
2001
Pages
87 - 132
Database
ISI
SICI code
1081-0706(2001)17:<87:PMCVLD>2.0.ZU;2-W
Abstract
Vertebrate limb buds are embryonic structures for which much molecular and cellular data are known regarding the mechanisms that control pattern forma tion during development, Specialized regions of the developing limb bud, su ch as the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), the apical ectodermal ridge (A ER), and the non-ridge ectoderm, direct and coordinate the development of t he limb bud along the anterior-posterior (A-P), dorsal-ventral (DV), and pr oximal-distal (PD) axes, giving rise to a stereotyped pattern of elements w ell conserved among tetrapods. In recent years, specific gene functions hav e been shown to mediate the organizing and patterning activities of the ZPA , the AER, and the non-ridge ectoderm. The analysis of these gene functions has revealed the existence of complex interactions between signaling pathw ays operated by secreted factors of the HH, TGF-beta /BMP, WNT, and FGF sup erfamilies, which interact with many other genetic networks to control limb positioning, outgrowth, and patterning. The study of limb development has helped to establish paradigms for the analysis of pattern formation in many other embryonic structures and organs.