Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: An update

Citation
Jk. Mccormick et al., Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: An update, ANN R MICRO, 55, 2001, pp. 77-104
Citations number
179
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Microbiology
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF MICROBIOLOGY
ISSN journal
0066-4227 → ACNP
Volume
55
Year of publication
2001
Pages
77 - 104
Database
ISI
SICI code
0066-4227(2001)55:<77:TSSABS>2.0.ZU;2-Q
Abstract
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute onset illness characterized by fever , rash formation, and hypotension that can lead to multiple organ failure a nd lethal shock, as well as desquamation in patients that recover. The dise ase is caused by bacterial superantigens (SAGs) secreted from Staphylococcu s aureus and group A streptococci. SAGs bypass normal antigen presentation by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules on antige n-presenting cells and to specific variable regions on the beta -chain of t he T-cell antigen receptor. Through this interaction, SAGs activate T cells at orders of magnitude above antigen-specific activation, resulting in mas sive cytokine release that is believed to be responsible for the most sever e features of TSS. This review focuses on clinical and epidemiological aspe cts of TSS, as well as important developments in the genetics, biochemistry , immunology, and structural biology of SAGs. From the evolutionary relatio nships between these important toxins, we propose that there are five disti nct groups of SAGs.