Initiation and resolution of jumping spider contests: roles for size, proximity, and early detection of rivals

Citation
Pw. Taylor et al., Initiation and resolution of jumping spider contests: roles for size, proximity, and early detection of rivals, BEHAV ECO S, 50(5), 2001, pp. 403-413
Citations number
58
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Animal Sciences
Journal title
BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
ISSN journal
0340-5443 → ACNP
Volume
50
Issue
5
Year of publication
2001
Pages
403 - 413
Database
ISI
SICI code
0340-5443(200110)50:5<403:IAROJS>2.0.ZU;2-V
Abstract
Animals are commonly expected to assess each other during contests in order to economically identify relative status. Escalated or long contests are e xpected to arise mainly when rivals have difficulty discriminating small di fferences. Results of the present study of male-male contests in Plexippus paykulli, a jumping spider (Salticidae) with acute vision, are not in accor d with this widely held view. Despite the typical finding that size-advanta ged rivals are more likely to win contests and that this tendency increases with size disparity, contest dynamics suggest that these tendencies are ac hieved in the absence of direct size assessment. In contests between differ ent-sized spiders, maximum escalation and overall duration were predicted b y the absolute size of the size-disadvantaged spider (usually the loser) ra ther than the size difference between the rivals. This result suggests that spiders base decisions of persistence on their own size, such that size-di sadvantaged rivals usually reach their limits first, and then retreat. This interpretation is further supported by findings that maximum escalation an d total duration were both positively related to size in contests between s ize-matched spiders. Spiders were more likely to win if they oriented and d isplayed first, and longer, more escalated, contests ensued if the size-dis advantaged spider was the first to orient and display. Proximity of rivals at contest outset also influenced contest dynamics, but not outcome.