The effort to decode the human genome has resulted in the development of bo
th new markers and analytical techniques of great anthropogenetic interest.
These have replaced the so-called classical markers (ABO, Rh, etc.) in rec
onstructing the evolutionary history of human populations. Here we review c
ritically the era of classical markers and report on the main contributions
to date of the new DNA polymorphisms in elucidating the evolutionary histo
ry of the Basque population.