Objective-To investigate socioeconomic differences in intermittent and dail
y smoking, and to assess the association between social participation and t
hese two smoking behaviours.
Design/setting/participants/ measurements-A population of 11 837 individual
s interviewed in 1992-94, aged 45-64 years, was investigated in this cross
sectional study. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to asses
s socioeconomic differences in daily and intermittent smoking, adjusting fo
r age, country of origin, previous/current diseases, and marital status. Fi
nally, social participation as a measure of social capital was introduced i
n the multivariate model.
Results-When unskilled manual workers were compared to high level non-manua
l employees, odds ratios of 2.3 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.7 to 3.0) f
or men and 1.9 (95% Cl 1.4 to 2.5) for women were found in regard to daily
smoking, but odd ratios of only 0.7 (95% Cl 0.4 to 1.2) for men and 1.3 (95
% Cl 0.7 to 2.4) for women were found in regard to intermittent smoking. A
decrease in the daily smoking odds ratios was found when social participati
on was introduced in the model, while the odds ratios regarding intermitten
t smoking were unaffected.
Conclusions-There were no socioeconomic differences in intermittent smoking
and no association with social participation, a result that contrasts shar
ply with the patterns of daily smoking. These findings have important impli
cations for the discussion concerning social capital and preventive measure