Objective To compare the effects of a modified-fat diet high in monounsatur
ated fat, and a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet on arterial elasticity.
Design Randomized crossover design; each diet period was 1 month and a 2-we
ek wash out period occurred in between.
Subjects/setting Thirty healthy, free-living, nonsmoking men and women were
recruited from the Melbourne, Australia, metropolitan region of Australia.
Men were aged 35 to 55 years and postmenopausal women were aged 50 to 60 y
ears and were not taking hormone replacement therapy. Twenty-eight subjects
completed the study.
Intervention Two diets of equal energy value: a modified-fat diet and a low
-fat/high-carbohydrate diet; the modified-fat diet had 3 times more energy
from monounsaturated fat.
Main outcome measures Arterial elasticity and serum lipoprotein concentrati
Statistical analysis The general linear model was used to investigate overa
ll effect and any carryover or order effects. Paired t test and the general
linear model were used to compare the results from the 2 diet periods.
Results High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was significantl
y higher on the modified-fat diet than on the low-fat/low-carbohydrate diet
. Arterial elasticity and concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were not significantly different
on the 2 diets.
Applications/conclusions There is no evidence to favor a diet high in monou
nsaturated fat over a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet because of an effect o
n arterial elasticity. Other changes in diet may be needed to cause a benef
icial effect on arterial elasticity.