Attack cone avoidance during predator inspection visits by wild finescale dace (Phoxinus neogaeus): The effects of predator diet

Citation
Ge. Brown et al., Attack cone avoidance during predator inspection visits by wild finescale dace (Phoxinus neogaeus): The effects of predator diet, J CHEM ECOL, 27(8), 2001, pp. 1657-1666
Citations number
25
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Environment/Ecology
Journal title
JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY
ISSN journal
0098-0331 → ACNP
Volume
27
Issue
8
Year of publication
2001
Pages
1657 - 1666
Database
ISI
SICI code
0098-0331(200108)27:8<1657:ACADPI>2.0.ZU;2-5
Abstract
When confronted by potential predators, many prey fishes engage in predator inspection behavior. Previous authors have argued that by selectively avoi ding the predator's head during an inspection visit (attack cone avoidance) , individual inspectors may reduce their local risk of predation. In field trials, we investigated the effects of predator diet cues on the presence o f 'attack cone avoidance' during predator inspection visits. Wild, free-ran ging finescale dace (Phoxinus neogaeus) were exposed to the combined cues o f a model predator and a distilled water control or the odor of a yellow pe rch (Perca flavescens) fed dace (with alarm pheromone), swordtail (Xiphopho rus helleri) (lacking Ostariophysan alarm pheromone), or perch that were fo od deprived for four days. Finescale dace modified their predator inspectio n behavior following exposure to the odor of a perch fed dace (fewer dace p resent, reduced frequency of inspections, and an increased per capita inspe ction rate) compared to those exposed to the odor of a perch fed swordtails , perch that were food deprived, or a distilled water control. In addition, dace inspected the tail region more often only when the model predator was paired with the odor of a perch fed dace. In all other treatments, dace in spected the head region of the model predator more often. These data sugges t that attack cone avoidance of inspecting prey fishes may be more likely t o occur in high-risk situations, such as in the presence of conspecific ala rm pheromones in the diet of potential predators.