The less harmful cigarette: A controversial issue. A tribute to Ernst L. Wynder

Citation
D. Hoffmann et al., The less harmful cigarette: A controversial issue. A tribute to Ernst L. Wynder, CHEM RES T, 14(7), 2001, pp. 767-790
Citations number
224
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Pharmacology & Toxicology
Journal title
CHEMICAL RESEARCH IN TOXICOLOGY
ISSN journal
0893-228X → ACNP
Volume
14
Issue
7
Year of publication
2001
Pages
767 - 790
Database
ISI
SICI code
0893-228X(200107)14:7<767:TLHCAC>2.0.ZU;2-S
Abstract
The dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and risk for lung cancer was established in 1950 by epidemiological studies. Labora tory assays with tobacco tar on mouse skin and smoke inhalation experiments with hamsters provided further evidence for this relationship. In cigarett e smoke, among 4800 identified compounds, 69 are carcinogens, and several a re tumor promoters or cocarcinogens. The major toxic agents are nicotine, c arbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, some volatile aldehydes, some alkenes, and some aromatic hydrocarbons. Public health information an d education have led to a reduction of cigarette smokers among U.S. adults from 40 to 25%. However, in high school students, smoking increased to 35% and in adults with less than a high school education it remains high at 33. 3%. Intervention studies were augmented with attempts of risk reduction by changing the tobacco composition and makeup of cigarettes. This led to ciga rettes that, according to the FTC, reduced the tar and nicotine yields from an average of 37 and 2.7 mg to 12 and 0.85 mg. The anticipated reduction o f mortality rates from chronic diseases among cigarette smokers did not occ ur, primarily, because of a major adjustment in smoking intensity and depth of inhalation by the habitual smokers. It is, therefore, imperative that s moking control efforts are intensified and that, short of banning cigarette sales, cigarettes delivering smoke with the lowest potential for toxicity, addiction, and carcinogenicity are declared a matter of public health poli cy.