Background Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is an established therapy for
a variety of hematological diseases with curative potential. However, despi
te improvements in supportive care, pulmonary complications remain a signif
icant cause of morbidity and mortality.
Methods. We report on a patient who received a double lung transplantation
(LTX) for therapy-refractory bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) associated with
extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic BMT.
Results. At present, 38 months after BMT and 23 months after LTX, the patie
nt is in complete hematological and cytogenetic remission and without signs
of respiratory distress.
Conclusions. This case illustrates that lung transplantation could be a the
rapeutic option in selected patients with BO after allogeneic BMT that is a
ssociated with extensive chronic GVHD and who are refractory to conventiona
l immunosuppressive therapy.