Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure

Authors
Citation
Jf. Reckelhoff, Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure, HYPERTENSIO, 37(5), 2001, pp. 1199-1208
Citations number
92
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems","Cardiovascular & Hematology Research
Journal title
HYPERTENSION
ISSN journal
0194-911X → ACNP
Volume
37
Issue
5
Year of publication
2001
Pages
1199 - 1208
Database
ISI
SICI code
0194-911X(200105)37:5<1199:GDITRO>2.0.ZU;2-D
Abstract
Men are at greater risk for cardiovascular and renal disease than are age-m atched, premenopausal women. Recent studies using the technique of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring have shown that blood pressure is high er in men than in women at similar ages. After menopause, however, blood pr essure increases in women to levels even higher than in men. Hormone replac ement therapy in most cases does not significantly reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women, suggesting that the loss of estrogens may not be the only component involved in the higher blood pressure in women after menopa use. In contrast, androgens may decrease only slightly, if at all, in postm enopausal women. In this review the possible mechanisms by which androgens may increase blood pressure are discussed. Findings in animal studies show that there is a blunting of the pressure-natriuresis relationship in male s pontaneously hypertensive rats and in ovariectomized female spontaneously h ypertensive rats treated chronically with testosterone. The key factor in c ontrolling the pressure-natriuresis relationship is the renin-angiotensin s ystem (RAS). The possibility that androgens increase blood pressure via the RAS is explored, and the possibility that the RAS also promotes oxidative stress leading to production of vasoconstrictor substances and reduction in nitric oxide availability is proposed.