The bony portion of the external acoustic meatus tear canal) in Ilamas has
a sigmoid shape, and the tympanic bulla has multiple compartments. For thes
e reasons, treatment of chronic otitis externa and media in Ilamas is diffi
cult. In addition, otoscopic examination does not permit complete evaluatio
n of the bony ear canal or examination of the tympanic membrane.
In llamas, radiography of the skull following instillation of contrast, med
ium in the ear canal provides information about the diameter of the bony ea
r canal, the integrity of the tympanic membrane, and the appearance of the