Authors

Citation

L. Blanchet et al., Relativistic theory for time and frequency transfer to order c(-3), ASTRON ASTR, 370(1), 2001, pp. 320-329

Citations number

26

Language

INGLESE

art.tipo

Article

Categorie Soggetti

Space Sciences

Journal title

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

ISSN journal

0004-6361
→ ACNP

Volume

370

Issue

1

Year of publication

2001

Pages

320 - 329

Database

ISI

SICI code

0004-6361(200104)370:1<320:RTFTAF>2.0.ZU;2-J

Abstract

This paper is motivated by the current development of several space mission
s (e.g. AGES on International Space Station) that will use Earth-orbit lase
r cooled atomic clocks, providing a time-keeping accuracy of the order of 5
10(-17) in fractional frequency. We show that to such accuracy, the theory
of frequency transfer between Earth and Space must be extended from the cu
rrently known relativistic order 1/c(2) (which has been needed in previous
space experiments such as GP-A) to the next relativistic correction of orde
r 1/c(3). We find that the frequency transfer includes the first and second
-order Doppler contributions, the Einstein gravitational red-shift and, at
the order 1/c(3), a mixture of these effects. As for the time transfer, it
contains the standard Shapiro time delay, and we present an expression also
including the first and second-order Sagnac corrections. Higher-order rela
tivistic corrections, at least O(1/c(4)), are numerically negligible for ti
me and frequency transfers in these experiments, being for instance of orde
r 10(-20) in fractional frequency. Particular attention is paid to the prob
lem of the frequency transfer in the two-way experimental configuration. In
this case we find a simple theoretical expression which extends the previo
us formula (Vessot ct al. 1980) to the next order 1/c(3). In the Appendix w
e present the detailed proofs of all the formulas which will be needed in s
uch experiments.