Shapes and sizes of nanoscale Pb inclusions in Al

Citation
E. Johnson et al., Shapes and sizes of nanoscale Pb inclusions in Al, MAT SCI E A, 304, 2001, pp. 187-193
Citations number
31
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Apllied Physucs/Condensed Matter/Materiales Science","Material Science & Engineering
Journal title
MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING
ISSN journal
0921-5093 → ACNP
Volume
304
Year of publication
2001
Pages
187 - 193
Database
ISI
SICI code
0921-5093(20010531)304:<187:SASONP>2.0.ZU;2-L
Abstract
Al-Pb alloys are monotectic and characterized by a large miscibility gap in the liquid phase area and extremely limited mutual solubility in the solid phase. Due to the extent of the miscibility gap the alloys are difficult t o make in conventional processing. However, alloys with relatively homogene ous microstructures of fine Pb inclusions in an Al matrix can he made hy me tastable processing such as rapid solidification, ion implantation, ball mi lling and physical vapor deposition. The first two techniques have been employed to make alloys of Al with 0.5-3 at.% Pb. The alloys contain fine dispersions of nanoscale Pb : implantatio n and from about 10-500 nm after rapid solidification. Inclusions inclusion s with sizes in the range from 1 to about 20 nm after ion embedded in the A l matrix are single crystalline, and they grow in parallel cube alignment w ith the matrix. They have cuboctahedral shape with atomically smooth {111} and {100} facets determined from a minimization of the interface energy. Us ing high resolution TEM, two types of deviations from the classical Wulff c onstruction which alter the shape of the inclusions, have been studied. The smallest inclusions, less than about 20 nm in size, adopt a series of magi c sizes that can be related to the occurrence of periodic minima in the res idual strain energy. Likewise, in this size range, the energy contribution from the cuboctahedral edges becomes non-negligible leading to an increase in the aspect ratio of the inclusions with decreasing size. Inclusions located in grain boundaries in general adopt a single crystal mo rphology where one part is faceted and grows in parallel cube alignment wit h the matrix grain, while the other part has a shape approximating a spheri cal cap. In special cases such as twin boundaries and {111} twist boundarie s, the inclusions are bicrystalline where each part is aligned with the res pective grain and the two parts are separated by a boundary similar to that of the matrix. These shapes can be explained using the Cahn-Hoffman xi -ve ctor construction, which generalizes the Wulff construction to determine eq uilibrium shapes at anisotropic interfaces and their junctions. (C) 2001 El sevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.