TT virus (TTV) is much more prevalent than we once imagined. With the use o
f primers designed from the noncoding regions, a more than 90% rate of TTV
infection in the general population by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has
been reported, showing that nonparenteral transmission must play an importa
nt role to its epidemiology. We considered that TTV may be secreted through
bile juice into feces to establish nonparenteral infection. Paired bile ju
ice and serum samples were obtained from 26 patients who were receiving bil
e drainage. Feces were also recovered after the drainage tube was removed.
TTV DNA was detected from 22 patients in serum (84.6%), and they were all T
TV DNA positive in bile juice. Most feces samples recovered from TTV-positi
ve patients were also TTV DNA positive. Secretion of TTV into bile juice ap
pears to be common. and this could play an important role to its transmissi
on and its epidemiology.