Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later

Citation
R. Plomin et al., Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later, CAN J PSY, 46(3), 2001, pp. 225-233
Citations number
71
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Psychiatry,"Clinical Psycology & Psychiatry
Journal title
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHIATRIE
ISSN journal
0706-7437 → ACNP
Volume
46
Issue
3
Year of publication
2001
Pages
225 - 233
Database
ISI
SICI code
0706-7437(200104)46:3<225:WACITS>2.0.ZU;2-Q
Abstract
Objective: To review recent developments in the study of nonshared environm ent, that is, the environmental influences that make children growing up in the same family different, rather than similar. Method: We review several recent influential books and papers on the subjec t of nonshared environment from the decade following the 1987 paper that hi ghlighted its importance in psychological development. Results: Modest progress hers been made toward identifying the specific asp ects of the environment responsible for nonshared environment. Although par ents treat their multiple children differently such differential treatment accounts for only a small amount of nonshared environmental influence, once genetic factors are controlled It has been suggested that some degree of n onshared environment may be due to the fact that siblings react differently to ostensibly shaved environmental influences. Peer influence and other ex periences outside the family may be more important sources of systematic no nshared environment. Conclusions: Despite the difficulties encountered in identifying specific s ources of nonshared environment, the fact remains that most environmental v ariance affecting the development of psychological dimensions and psychiatr ic disorders is not shared by children growing zip in the same family. More research and theory ave needed to explain why such siblings are so differe nt. Chance in the sense of idiosyncratic experiences, also needs to be cons idered.