Objectives: To describe current knowledge on the aetiology, pathology, diag
nosis, and treatment of HN associated nephropathy.
Methods: A Medline search was performed using the key words "HIV," "nephrop
athy," "renal," and "kidney." A further search was performed for each of th
e currently licensed antiretroviral agents linked to key words "renal" or "
kidney" and also using the MeSH heading "pharmacokinetics."
Results: HIV associated nephropathy is a common complication of HIV in blac
k African and Afro-Caribbean patients and presents with progressive renal f
ailure and heavy proteinuria. As other causes of renal failure are likely t
o fall in incidence among patients successfully treated with highly active
antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV associated nephropathy will become incr
easingly prominent as a cause of renal impairment in HN infected patients.
Recent evidence suggests that HIV associated nephropathy will respond to HA
ART with a dramatic improvement in renal function.
Conclusion: HIV associated nephropathy is a treatable condition. This condi
tion should be actively sought in HN infected patients if they are to recei
ve the benefits of therapy.