Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action

Citation
K. Pettersson et Ja. Gustafsson, Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action, ANN R PHYSL, 63, 2001, pp. 165-192
Citations number
175
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Physiology
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN journal
0066-4278 → ACNP
Volume
63
Year of publication
2001
Pages
165 - 192
Database
ISI
SICI code
0066-4278(2001)63:<165:ROERBI>2.0.ZU;2-S
Abstract
There was a time when the classification or sex hormones was simple. Androg ens were male and estrogens female. What remains true today is that in youn g adults androgen levels are higher in males and estrogen levels higher in females. More recently we have learned that estrogens are necessary in male s for regulation of male sexual behavior, maintenance of the skeleton and t he cardiovascular system, and for normal function of the testis and prostat e. The importance of androgen in females was never in doubt, it is after al l the precursor of estrogen as the substrate for aromatase, the enzyme that produces estrogen. In addition, the tissue distribution of androgen recept ors suggests that androgens themselves are important in the ovary, uterus, breast, and brain. New information promises to clarify some of the complex issues of the physi ological roles of estrogen and the contribution of estrogen to the developm ent of neoplastic diseases in humans. The discovery of the second estrogen receptor, the creation of mutant mice defective in both estrogen receptors and in the aromatase gene, the solution of the structures of the ligand-bin ding domains of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and estrogen receptor be ta (ER beta), the finding of novel routes through which estrogen receptors can modulate transcription, and the identification of a man with a bi-allel ic disruptive mutation of the ER alpha gene are but some of the milestones. This review focuses on the mechanistic aspects of signal transduction medi ated by ERs and on the physiological consequences of deficiency of estrogen or estrogen receptor in the available mouse models.