A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking and imagingusing standard VLSI CMOS technology

Citation
R. Turchetta et al., A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking and imagingusing standard VLSI CMOS technology, NUCL INST A, 458(3), 2001, pp. 677-689
Citations number
21
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Spectroscopy /Instrumentation/Analytical Sciences","Instrumentation & Measurement
Journal title
NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT
ISSN journal
0168-9002 → ACNP
Volume
458
Issue
3
Year of publication
2001
Pages
677 - 689
Database
ISI
SICI code
0168-9002(20010211)458:3<677:AMAPSF>2.0.ZU;2-A
Abstract
A novel Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for charged particle tracking made in a standard CMOS technology is proposed. The sensor is a photodiode , which is readily available in a CMOS technology. The diode has a special structure, which allows the high detection efficiency required for tracking applications. The partially depleted thin epitaxial silicon layer is used as a sensitive detector volume. Semiconductor device simulation, using eith er ToSCA based or 3-D ISE-TCAD software packages shows that the charge coll ection is efficient: reasonably fast (order of 100 ns), and the charge spre ading limited to a few pixels only. A first prototype has been designed, fa bricated and tested. It is made of four arrays each containing 64 x 64 pixe ls, with a readout pitch of 20 mum in both directions. The device is fabric ated using standard submicron 0.6 mum CMOS process, which features twin-tub implanted in a p-type epitaxial layer, a characteristic common to many mod ern CMOS VLSI processes. Extensive tests made with soft X-ray source (Fe-55 ) and minimum ionising particles (15 GeV/c pions) fully demonstrate the pre dicted performances, with the individual pixel noise (ENC) below 20 electro ns and the Signal-to-Noise ratio for both 5.9 keV X-rays and Minimum Ionisi ng Particles (MIP) of the order of 30. This novel device opens new perspect ives in high-precision vertex detectors in Particle Physics experiments, as well as in other application,like low-energy beta particle imaging, visibl e light single photon imaging (using the Hybrid Photon Detector approach) a nd high-precision slow neutron imaging. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.