An analysis was conducted on greenhouse gas emissions from the liquified na
tural gas (LNG) chain and life cycle of City Gas 13A [caloric value: 46 MJ/
Nm(3)(11,000 kcal/Nm(3))], which is produced from LNG. The analysis was bas
ed on highly reliable data which are qualified in terms of source and repre
sentativeness. Actually, the latest data for CO2 and CH4 emissions from the
natural gas field and liquefaction plant were obtained from field studies.
Moreover, the analysis includes CO2 emissions during the LNG transportatio
n from exporting countries to Japan, city gas production and distribution s
tage in Japan and the manufacturing of facilities associated with the produ
ction of natural gas overseas to final domestic consumption. The reduction
effect of CO2 using LNG cryogenic energy was also considered. The evaluatio
n showed that the level of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumptions
in the modern natural gas production and liquefaction plants were lower th
an those previously reported due to improvements in the production process.
The results of the analysis also provide basic data essential for conducti
ng life cycle analyses in many fields using natural gas. (C) 2001 Elsevier
Science Ltd. All rights reserved.