Bisphenol A is used as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate plastic
products. The widespread use of bisphenol A has raised concerns about its
effects in humans. Since there is little information on the mutagenic poten
tial of the chemical, the mutagenicity of bisphenol A was tested using huma
n RSa cells, which has been utilized for identification of novel mutagens.
In genomic DNA from cells treated with bisphenol A at concentrations rangin
g from 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-5) M, base substitution mutations at K-ras cod
on 12 were detected using PCR and differential dot-blot hybridization with
mutant probes. Mutations were also detected using the method of peptide nuc
leic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping. The latter method enabled us to dete
ct the mutation in bisphenol A-treated cells at a dose (1 x 10(-8) M) equiv
alent to that typically found in the environment Induction of ouabain-resis
tant (Oua(R)) phenotypic mutation was also found in cells treated with 1 x
10(-7) and 1 x 10(-5) M of bisphenol A. The induction of K-ms codon 12 muta
tions and OuaR mutations was suppressed by pretreating RSa cells with human
interferon (HuIFN)-alpha prior to bisphenol A treatment. The cells treated
with bisphenol A at the concentration of 1 x 10(-6) M elicited unscheduled
DNA synthesis (UDS). These findings suggested that bisphenol A has mutagen
icity in RSa cells as well as mutagens that have been tested in these cells
, and furthermore, that a combination of the PNA-mediated PCR clamping meth
od with the human RSa cell line may be used as an assay system for screenin
g the mutagenic chemicals at very low doses. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
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