The fossil brachiopods from the collection of Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672
-1733) were examined. This collection contains the oldest known specimens w
hich are related to published reproductions. It could be shown that most of
these brachiopods come from the Upper and Middle Jurassic of thr northeast
ern and the Lower Cretaceous of the western Jura Mountains of Switzerland.
Paleozoic species of Permian and Devonian age from the middle part of Germa
ny are also well represented. From the nine brachiopods which Scheuchzer il
lustrated in his works: five could be assigned to the original fossils and
determined, based on external morphology. By considering the descriptions a
nd interpretations of Scheuchzer's texts it became evident that he was an e
xcellent observer and enriched the paleontological knowledge of hs time, al
so in the field of the brachiopods. To demonstrate this his results were pl
aced in the context of the brachiopod research of the early modem period.