Use of medetomidine and ketamine for immobilization of free-ranging giraffes

Citation
M. Bush et al., Use of medetomidine and ketamine for immobilization of free-ranging giraffes, J AM VET ME, 218(2), 2001, pp. 245-249
Citations number
16
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Veterinary Medicine/Animal Health
Journal title
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
ISSN journal
0003-1488 → ACNP
Volume
218
Issue
2
Year of publication
2001
Pages
245 - 249
Database
ISI
SICI code
0003-1488(20010115)218:2<245:UOMAKF>2.0.ZU;2-9
Abstract
Objective-To develop a dosage correlated with shoulder height (SH) in centi meters for effective immobilization of free-ranging giraffes, using a combi nation of medetomidine (MED) and ketamine (KET) and reversal with atipamezo le (ATP). Design-Prospective study. Animals-23 free-ranging giraffes. Procedure-The drug combination (MED and KET) was administered by use of a p rojectile dart. Quality of induction, quality of immobilization, and lime t o recovery following injection of ATP were evaluated. Physiologic variables measured during immobilization included Pao(2), Paco(2), oxygen saturation , end-tidal CO2,`blood pH, indirect arterial blood pressure, heart and resp iratory rates, and rectal temperature. Results-Sixteen giraffes became recumbent with a dosage (mean +/- SD) of 14 3 +/- 29 mug of MED and 2.7 +/- 0.6 mg of KET/cm of SH. Initially, giraffes were atactic and progressed to lateral recumbency. Three giraffes required casting with ropes for data collection, with dosages of 166 +/- 5 mug of M ED and 3.2 +/- 0.6 mg of KET/cm of SH. Four giraffes required administratio n of etorphine (n = 2) or were cast with ropes (2) for capture but remained dangerous to personnel once recumbent, precluding data collection. In gira ffes successfully immobilized, physiologic monitoring revealed hypoxia and increased respiratory rates. Values for Paco(2), end-tidal CO2, and heart r ate remained within reference ranges. All giraffes were hypertensive and ha d a slight increase in rectal temperature. Atipamezole was administered at 340 +/- 20 mug/cm of SH, resulting in rapid and smooth recoveries. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Medetomidine and KET was an effective im mobilizing combination for free-ranging giraffes; however, at the dosages u sed, it does not induce adequate analgesia for major manipulative procedure s. Quality of induction and immobilization were enhanced if the giraffe was calm. Reversal was rapid and complete following injection of ATP.