The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations
outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans.
Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa
by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central European
s. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry
in Local archaic populations and earlier modern populations from the Levant
and/or Africa could be rejected. The data imply that both have a dual ance
stry. The diversity of recent humans cannot result exclusively from a singl
e Late Pleistocene dispersal.