Mechanisms of synaptic vesicle exocytosis

Citation
Rc. Lin et Rh. Scheller, Mechanisms of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, ANN R C DEV, 16, 2000, pp. 19-49
Citations number
131
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Cell & Developmental Biology
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
ISSN journal
1081-0706 → ACNP
Volume
16
Year of publication
2000
Pages
19 - 49
Database
ISI
SICI code
1081-0706(2000)16:<19:MOSVE>2.0.ZU;2-T
Abstract
Chemical synaptic transmission serves as the main form of cell to cell comm unication in the nervous system. Neurotransmitter release occurs through th e process of regulated exocytosis, in which a synaptic vesicle releases its contents in response to an increase in calcium. The use of genetic, bioche mical, structural, and functional studies has led to the identification of factors important in the synaptic vesicle life cycle. Here we focus on the prominent role of SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins during membrane fusion and the regulation of SNARE function by Rab3a, nSec1 , and NSE Many of the proteins important for transmitter release have homol ogs involved in intracellular vesicle transport, and all forms of vesicle t rafficking share common basic principles. Finally, modifications to the syn aptic exocytosis pathway are very likely to underlie certain forms of synap tic plasticity and therefore contribute to learning and memory.