In 1995, industry accounted for 41% of global energy use. Although the effi
ciency of industrial processes has increased greatly during the past decade
s, energy efficiency improvements remain the major opportunity to reduce CO
, emissions. Industrialisation may affect the environment adversely, stress
ing the need for transfer of cleaner technologies to developing countries.
A review of trends, barriers and opportunities for technology transfer is p
resented. Technology transfer is a process involving assessment, agreement,
implementation, evaluation and adaptation, and repetition. Institutional b
arriers and policies influence the transaction process, as well as the effi
ciency of the transfer process, in particular in the adaptation and repetit
ion stages of the technology transfer process. Investments in industrial te
chnology are dominated by the private sector. In industry, energy efficienc
y is often the result of investments in modern equipment, stressing the imp
ortance and need for environmentally sound and long-term investment policie
s. The interactive and dynamic character of technology transfer stresses th
e need for innovative and flexible approaches, through partnerships between
various stakeholders. Adaptation of technology to local conditions is esse
ntial, but practices vary widely. Countries that spend on average more on a
daptation, seem to be more successful in technology transfer, hence success
ful technology transfer depends on transfer of technological capabilities.
Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.