Holins: The protein clocks of bacteriophage infections

Citation
In. Wang et al., Holins: The protein clocks of bacteriophage infections, ANN R MICRO, 54, 2000, pp. 799-825
Citations number
101
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Microbiology
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF MICROBIOLOGY
ISSN journal
0066-4227 → ACNP
Volume
54
Year of publication
2000
Pages
799 - 825
Database
ISI
SICI code
0066-4227(2000)54:<799:HTPCOB>2.0.ZU;2-G
Abstract
Two proteins, an endolysin and a holin, are essential for host lysis by bac teriophage. Endolysin is the term for muralytic enzymes that degrade the ce ll wall; endolysins accumulate in the cytosol fully folded during the veget ative cycle. Holins are small membrane proteins that accumulate in the memb rane until, at a specific time that is "programmed" into the holin gene, th e membrane suddenly becomes permeabilized to the fully folded endolysin. De struction of the murein and bursting of the cell are immediate sequelae. Ho lins control the length of the infective cycle for lytic phages and so are subject to intense evolutionary pressure to achieve lysis at an optimal tim e. Holins are regulated by protein inhibitors of several different kinds. H olins constitute one of the most diverse functional groups, with >100 known or putative holin sequences, which form >30 ortholog groups.