Restoration of the superficial facial musculature in nimravids

Citation
Vl. Naples et Ld. Martin, Restoration of the superficial facial musculature in nimravids, ZOOL J LINN, 130(1), 2000, pp. 55-81
Citations number
40
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Animal Sciences
Journal title
ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY
ISSN journal
0024-4082 → ACNP
Volume
130
Issue
1
Year of publication
2000
Pages
55 - 81
Database
ISI
SICI code
0024-4082(200009)130:1<55:ROTSFM>2.0.ZU;2-S
Abstract
The size, shape and position of the mouth and sensory features such as the nose, eyes and ears in the nimravid barbourofelins are reconstructed. The e arliest barbourofelin studied, Sansanosmilus, is the most similar to both p antherine and nonpantherine felids in sensory structure morphology. Through time, the species of the barbourofelin lineage diverge from felids with re gard to facial Features. Evolutionary trends include expansion of the nasal region, a more lateral orientation of the eyes and lowered position for th e ears. Increased width and shortening of the muzzle accommodates the large oral opening required by the large gape of Barbourofelis, culminating in B . fricki with eyes oriented laterally enough to reduce stereoscopic vision. The ear position in this species is also significantly lower than in the e arlier barbourofelins or felids. This may reflect an anatomic compromise be tween sensory structure position and changes in relative size, shape and po sition of other skull features. These changes correlate with increased cani ne tooth length and increased gape, exemplified by Barbourofelis fricki. Cr anial soft tissue structures are restored through scars of attachment on th e fossil bones, and the proportions of these features to one another determ ined. New observations provide criteria for reconstructing soft tissue anat omy in extinct animals. (C) 2000 The Linnean Society of London.