Agony and ecstasy: a review of MDMA effects and toxicity

Citation
C. Burgess et al., Agony and ecstasy: a review of MDMA effects and toxicity, EUR PSYCHIA, 15(5), 2000, pp. 287-294
Citations number
61
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Psychiatry,"Clinical Psycology & Psychiatry
Journal title
EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY
ISSN journal
0924-9338 → ACNP
Volume
15
Issue
5
Year of publication
2000
Pages
287 - 294
Database
ISI
SICI code
0924-9338(200008)15:5<287:AAEARO>2.0.ZU;2-I
Abstract
Background - Ecstasy is a recreational drug with an anecdotal reputation fo r safety. However, reports of adverse effects and fatalities have increased in the medical and popular press. Method - Literature search and review. Results - Acute Ecstasy toxicity does not appear to be due to overdose and cannot be solely attributed to the nature of the usual ambient environment. Adverse effects include hyperthermia, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hepat otoxicity, hyponatraemia and many psychiatric disorders. Ecstasy causes ser otonergic neurotoxicity in the brains of animals at doses close to those us ed by humans, but its long-term effect on the human brain is unknown. Conclusion - Ecstasy toxicity should be considered in the differential diag nosis of a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Given its popular ity, both the acute and the potential long-term effects are a cause for con cern. (C) 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.