Babesiosis

Citation
Mj. Homer et al., Babesiosis, CLIN MICROB, 13(3), 2000, pp. 451
Citations number
237
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Microbiology
Journal title
CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS
ISSN journal
0893-8512 → ACNP
Volume
13
Issue
3
Year of publication
2000
Database
ISI
SICI code
0893-8512(200007)13:3<451:B>2.0.ZU;2-J
Abstract
Babesiosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted zoonotic disease caused by hema totropic parasites of the genus Babesia. Babesial parasites (and those of t he closely related genus Theileria) are some of the most ubiquitous and wid espread blood parasites in the world, second only to the trypanosomes, and consequently have considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. The parasites are intraerythrocytic and are commonly called piropla sms due to the pear-shaped forms found within infected red blood cells. The piroplasms are transmitted by ixodid ticks and are capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrate hosts which are competent in maintaining the tra nsmission cycle. Studies involving animal hosts other than humans have cont ributed significantly to our understanding of the disease process, includin g possible pathogenic mechanisms of the parasite and immunological response s of the host. To date, there are several species of Babesia that can infec t humans, Babesia microti being the most prevalent. Infections with Babesia species generally follow regional distributions; cases in the United State s are caused primarily by B. microti, whereas cases in Europe are usually c aused by Babesia divergens. The spectrum of disease manifestation is broad, ranging from a silent infection to a fulminant, malaria-like disease, resu lting in severe hemolysis and occasionally in death. Recent advances have r esulted in the development of several diagnostic tests which have increased the level of sensitivity in detection, thereby facilitating diagnosis, exp editing appropriate patient management, and resulting in a more accurate ep idemiological description.