Work function of ITO substrates and band-offsets at the TPD/ITO interface determined by photoelectron spectroscopy

Citation
L. Chkoda et al., Work function of ITO substrates and band-offsets at the TPD/ITO interface determined by photoelectron spectroscopy, SYNTH METAL, 111, 2000, pp. 315-319
Citations number
10
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Apllied Physucs/Condensed Matter/Materiales Science
Journal title
SYNTHETIC METALS
ISSN journal
0379-6779 → ACNP
Volume
111
Year of publication
2000
Pages
315 - 319
Database
ISI
SICI code
0379-6779(20000601)111:<315:WFOISA>2.0.ZU;2-7
Abstract
Surface compositions and work functions (Phi) of commercially available ind ium tin oxide (ITO) substates were measured by photoelectron spectroscopy ( UPS/XPS). Whereas substrates cleaned by organic solvents are significantly contaminated and have low Phi values (3.9-4.2 +/- 0.1 eV), substrates clean ed by Ar+ sputtering typically have values of Phi = 4.3 +/- 0.1 eV. Even hi gher Phi values (up to 4.7 +/- 0.1 eV) are obtained by reactive ion etching with oxygen, likely related to oxygen-containing surface impurities. Evapo rated TPD is physisorbed on ITO, but causes a drop of the vacuum potential by 0.2-0.4 eV (depending on the ITO pretreatment) directly at the TPD/ITO i nterface, in contradiction to the common-vacuum level rule. The TPD highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is found 1.1-1.3 eV below the Fermi leve l of the ITO, which indicates the presence of a significant barrier for hol e injection. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.