Grooming between male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park. I. Partner number and diversity and grooming reciprocity

Authors
Citation
Dp. Watts, Grooming between male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park. I. Partner number and diversity and grooming reciprocity, INT J PRIM, 21(2), 2000, pp. 189-210
Citations number
47
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Animal Sciences
Journal title
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY
ISSN journal
0164-0291 → ACNP
Volume
21
Issue
2
Year of publication
2000
Pages
189 - 210
Database
ISI
SICI code
0164-0291(200004)21:2<189:GBMCAN>2.0.ZU;2-U
Abstract
Allogrooming serves many social functions in primates. Grooming can help in dividuals to service social relationships generally sometimes reciprocally, and may be particularly important in the development and maintenance of al liances. However, time constraints limit the number of partners with whom o ne individual can groom enough to maintain cooperative relationships. As a result, the size of its grooming network may reach an asymptote as the size of its group increases, and it may distribute its grooming less equally am ong potential partners. Chimpanzees live in multimale, fission-fusion commu nities; males are philopatric, and commonly associate and groom with each o ther. Males from within-community alliances that influence dominance rank a nd access to mates, and allies groom with each other regularly; males also cooperate in aggression between communities. The chimpanzee community at Ng ogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, is unusually large and has more males than any other known community. Field data show that adult Ngogo males gro omed far more with other adult males than with females or with adolescent m ales, in contrast to a previous report (Ghiglieri, 1984). Adolescent males groomed adults much more than the reverse; males groomed and were groomed b y females about equally. Individual males groomed mostly with a small numbe r of other males. On average, males at Ngogo had only slightly more male gr ooming partners overall and had the same number of important partners as th ose of males in a much smaller community in the Mahale National Park, Tanza nia, and they distributed their grooming less equitably. These results fit those expected if limits on available grooming time cause males to have a l oyalty problem as the number of potential grooming alliance partners increa se. Despite differences in the extent and equitability of their grooming ne tworks, males at both Ngogo and Mahale showed reciprocity in grooming. Groo ming reciprocity has been demonstrated for captive chimpanzee males, but th e Ngogo findings are the first demonstrations of reciprocity in wild commun ities.