In this review the available reports on drug resistance in human helminths,
particularly hookworms and schistosomes, are critically analyzed. The expe
riences with helminths of livestock are then reviewed, in particular the fa
ctors contributing to the development of anthelmintic resistance, the mecha
nisms and genetics of resistance to various anthelmintic classes, and the m
ethods available for detection. These experiences appear to be worryingly s
imilar and relevant to the potential development of drug resistance in huma
n helminths. Recommendations to reduce its risks are suggested.