Freezing behavior of freely suspended industrial wastewater droplets

Citation
W. Gao et al., Freezing behavior of freely suspended industrial wastewater droplets, COLD REG SC, 31(1), 2000, pp. 13-26
Citations number
25
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Civil Engineering
Journal title
COLD REGIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ISSN journal
0165-232X → ACNP
Volume
31
Issue
1
Year of publication
2000
Pages
13 - 26
Database
ISI
SICI code
0165-232X(200002)31:1<13:FBOFSI>2.0.ZU;2-1
Abstract
The freezing behavior of freely suspended piggery wastewater, pulp mill eff luent and oil sands tailings pond water droplets was investigated in a spec ially designed vertical wind tunnel. The entire freezing process was record ed by video cameras and observed visually. The droplets were frozen under d ifferent ambient air temperature conditions while floating in the cold air stream. The video images revealed that ice nucleation in the freely suspend ed water droplets started at the edge of the bottom of the droplets and pro pagated over the entire surface enclosing the drop in an ice shell under al l temperature conditions. The speed of the droplet surface freezing was a f unction of the ambient air temperature and the chemical characteristic of t he water. Most droplets decreased in terminal velocity after freezing. Frac ture of ice shell with concentrate discharge was observed for the frozen pu lp mill effluent and oil sands tailings pond water droplets. (C) 2000 Elsev ier Science B.V. All rights reserved.