The surface oxidation of Nd target is significant to the stability of the r
esults in the X-ray experiment. We prepare the Nd target by sputtering and
study the oxidation process under different environment, the surface oxide
and appearance are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Atomic F
orce Microscopy respectively. Thus we believe that it is important to preve
nt the generation of hydroxide for the aim of anti-oxidation.