Based on understanding the molecular mechanism of bladder carcinogenesis, c
ancer gene therapy may well become a novel therapy in the near future. Curr
ently, a viral vector system appears to be a better vehicle to deliver gene
s into target cells. Exploring different therapeutic strategies has generat
ed promising results from preclinical bladder cancer models. Phase I clinic
al trials are underway to study the feasibility of this treatment for human
bladder cancer patients. However, several potential problems associated wi
th effective gene delivery need to be further refined.