Contingency management (CM), the systematic reinforcement of desired behavi
ors and the withholding of reinforcement or punishment of undesired behavio
rs, is an effective strategy in the treatment of alcohol and other drug (AO
D) use disorders, Animal research provides the conceptual basis for using C
M in AOD abuse treatment, and human studies have demonstrated the effective
ness of CM interventions in reducing AOD use; improving treatment attendanc
e; and reinforcing other treatment goals, such as complying with a medicati
on regimen or obtaining employment.