A pilot study of naltrexone-accelerated detoxification in opioid dependence

Citation
Jr. Bell et al., A pilot study of naltrexone-accelerated detoxification in opioid dependence, MED J AUST, 171(1), 1999, pp. 26-30
Citations number
17
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
General & Internal Medicine","Medical Research General Topics
Journal title
MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA
ISSN journal
0025-729X → ACNP
Volume
171
Issue
1
Year of publication
1999
Pages
26 - 30
Database
ISI
SICI code
0025-729X(19990705)171:1<26:APSOND>2.0.ZU;2-U
Abstract
Objective: 1. To determine whether naltrexone-accelerated detoxification wi th minimal sedation is an acceptable and effective form of induction onto n altrexone. 2. To monitor outcomes of detoxified patients. Design: Observational study. Setting: Medical ward of a general hospital (for detoxification) and a comm unity clinic (for follow-up) in Sydney, NSW, 1998. Patients: 15 heroin users and 15 people seeking withdrawal from methadone. Intervention: Detoxification used naltrexone (12.5 or 50 mg), with flunitra zepam (2-3 mg), clonidine (150-750 mu g) and octreotide (300 mu g) for symp tomatic support. Patients remained awake and were discharged when they felt well enough. Follow-up was daily for four days and then weekly for up to t hree months for supportive care. Main outcome measures: Acute side effects; patient ratings of severity and acceptability of withdrawal; nights of hospitalisation; rates of induction onto naltrexone; retention in treatment over three months; and relapse to o pioid use. Results: Acute withdrawal with delirium lasted about four hours. Octreotide was crucial for controlling vomiting; with octreotide no patient required intravenous fluids. There were no major complications. Eighteen patients (6 0%) reported that it was a "quite" acceptable procedure, 18 (60%) required only one night's hospitalisation, and 24 (80%) were successfully inducted o nto naltrexone (defined as taking naltrexone on Day 8). Three months later, six (20%) were still taking naltrexone (with four of these occasionally us ing heroin) and seven (23%) were abstinent from opioids, including five not taking naltrexone. Eleven had gone onto methadone maintenance, seven had r elapsed to heroin use, and one had died of a heroin overdose. Conclusions: Rates of induction onto naltrexone were comparable with those reported for accelerated detoxification under sedation, suggesting that it can be performed successfully with minimal sedation. As in other studies of naltrexone maintenance, retention was low, and relapse to heroin use was c ommon.