Major advances in cancer therapy result from development of multidrug chemo
therapy regimens. Besides death from tumor progression, infections are curr
ently one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. Because of the ri
sk of complications and mortality, the treatment for febrile neutropenia is
admission to hospital and administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Re
sponse rates of initial antimicrobial treatment vary considerably (40-92%).
Due to the heterogeneity of populations in randomized studies, comparison
of efficacy and identification of risk factors is limited. This is the main
reason why the European Society of Biomodulation and Chemotherapy (ESBiC)
is conducting a surveillance study that concentrates more on the evaluation
of risk factors than on the therapeutic outcome of prospective randomized
antimicrobial regimens: European Surveillance of Infections in Cancer Patie
nts (ESIC). The present contribution is to determine which cancer patients
are at low risk for fever, and can benefit from first-line treatment with t
reatment options such as monotherapy as well as on an outpatient basis.