MASS-SPECTROMETRY IN THE SEARCH FOR UREMIC TOXINS

Authors
Citation
T. Niwa, MASS-SPECTROMETRY IN THE SEARCH FOR UREMIC TOXINS, Mass spectrometry reviews, 16(6), 1997, pp. 307-332
Citations number
106
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Journal title
ISSN journal
0277-7037
Volume
16
Issue
6
Year of publication
1997
Pages
307 - 332
Database
ISI
SICI code
0277-7037(1997)16:6<307:MITSFU>2.0.ZU;2-O
Abstract
This article reviews the literature on the mass spectrometry (MS) that has been used in the research of uremic toxins. Gas chromatography/ma ss spectrometry? (GC/MS) has been most often used for the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds in uremic blood such as organic acids, phenols, and polyols. However, it cannot be used for the analysis of m iddle- to high-molecular-weight substances or for involatile compounds . The development of fast atom bombardment (FAB) and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS) has made possible the analysis of middle -molecules and involatile low-molecular-weight substances such as pept ides and nucleosides. The development of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) has also lend to the analysis of involatile low-mol ecular-weight substances. The recent advances in ionization methods, s uch as electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorpt ion ionization (MALDI), have permitted the MS analysis of high-molecul ar-weight substances such as beta(2)-microglobulin, a major component of dialysis amyloid Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), u sing ESI, APCI, or FAB as an ionization method, is currently the prefe rred method for the analysis of low- to high-molecular weight substanc es in uremic blood. ESI-LC/MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption ion ization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) are useful for elucidating the structure of post-translationally! modified proteins o btained from the blood and tissues of uremic patients. Post-translatio nal modification such as the formation of advanced glycation end-produ cts and carbamoylation is enhanced in uremic patients, and is consider ed to be responsible for some uremic symptoms. Laser microprobe MS is unique in its capability for the two-dimensional detection of atoms su ch as aluminum in a tissue section obtained from uremic patients. This review focuses on the mainstream research for discovering uremic toxi ns, specific uremic toxins identified or quantified using MS, and the MS analysis of post-translationally modified proteins in uremia. These studies have provided ample evidence that MS has played an important role in the search for uremic toxins. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.