An extensive number of animal and clinical studies indicate that trans
forming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta s)play an important role in infl
ammatory and fibrotic diseases, including renal fibrosis. Recent mouse
models harboring genetically engineered alterations in TGF-P pathways
reveal complicated mechanisms of regulation of TGF-beta activity in v
ivo. The purpose of this review is to present recent advances relevant
to our understanding of the TGF-beta-signaling system in renal physio
logy and pathophysiology.