THE GENOTOXIC HAZARDS OF DOMESTIC WASTES IN SURFACE WATERS

Citation
Pa. White et Jb. Rasmussen, THE GENOTOXIC HAZARDS OF DOMESTIC WASTES IN SURFACE WATERS, Mutation research-reviews in mutation research, 410(3), 1998, pp. 223-236
Citations number
103
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Genetics & Heredity",Toxicology,"Biothechnology & Applied Migrobiology
Volume
410
Issue
3
Year of publication
1998
Pages
223 - 236
Database
ISI
SICI code
Abstract
Despite the noteworthy genotoxic potency of many industrial wastewater s, the genotoxic hazard posed to the downstream ecosystem and its asso ciated biota will be determined by genotoxic loading. Municipal wastew aters, although ranking low in potency, can achieve loading values tha t are several orders of magnitude greater than those of most industrie s. Although these wastewaters are generally mixtures of wastes from se veral different sources, the volumetric proportion of the daily discha rge that is of industrial origin rarely exceeds 30%, Genotoxicity calc ulations for the Montreal Urban Community (MUC) municipal wastewater t reatment facility indicate that over 90% of the genotoxic loading (31. 1 kg benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per day) is nonindustrial in origin. M oreover, a mass balance of surface water genotoxicity for St. Lawrence river at Montreal indicates that over 85% of the total contributions from the Montreal region are nonindustrial in origin. Additional calcu lations for the Great Lakes, and other rivers throughout the world, pr ovide further support of a strong relationship between surface water g enotoxicity and population. Despite some information about physical/ch emical properties, the identity of the putative genotoxins in municipa l wastewaters and surface waters remains a mystery, Likely candidates include potent genotoxins, such as N-nitroso compounds and aromatic am ines, known to be present in human sanitary wastes, as well as genotox ic PAHs known to be present in many municipal wastewaters. Calculation s based on literature data indicate that human sanitary wastes may be able to account for a substantial fraction (4-70%) of the nonindustria l loading from municipal wastewaters. Similar calculations suggest tha t pyrogenic PAHs that enter municipal wastewaters via surface runoff c an only account for a small fraction (< 5%) of the genotoxic loading v alues discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.