GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS IN THE MAMMALIAN CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM

Citation
S. Ozawa et al., GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS IN THE MAMMALIAN CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM, Progress in neurobiology, 54(5), 1998, pp. 581-618
Citations number
406
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Neurosciences
Journal title
ISSN journal
0301-0082
Volume
54
Issue
5
Year of publication
1998
Pages
581 - 618
Database
ISI
SICI code
0301-0082(1998)54:5<581:GRITMC>2.0.ZU;2-M
Abstract
Glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most of the excitatory neurotransm ission in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the y are involved in plastic changes in synaptic trans mission as well as excitotoxic neuronal cell death that occurs in a variety of acute and chronic neurological disorders. The GluRs are divided into two distin ct groups, ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. The ionotropic recep tors (iGluRs) are further subdivided into three groups: pha-amino-3-hy droxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-as partate (MMDA) receptor channels. The metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins), and regulate the pro duction of intracellular messengers. The application of molecular clon ing technology has greatly advanced our understanding of the GluR syst em. To date, at least 14 cDNAs of subunit proteins constituting iGluRs and 8 cDNAs of proteins coznstituting mGluRs have been cloned in the mammalian CNS, and the molecular structure, distribution and developme ntal change in the CNS, Functional and pharmacological properties of e ach receptor subunit have been elucidated. Furthermore, the obtained c lones have provided valuable tools for conducting studies to clarify t he physiological and pathophysiological significances of each subunit. For example, the generation of gene knockout mice has disclosed criti cal roles of some GluR subunits in brain functions. In this article, w e review recent progress in the research for GluRs with special emphas is on the molecular diversity of the GluR system and its implications for physiology and pathology of the CNS. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd .