FRUIT AND VEGETABLES, AND HUMAN CANCER

Citation
C. Lavecchia et A. Tavani, FRUIT AND VEGETABLES, AND HUMAN CANCER, European journal of cancer prevention, 7(1), 1998, pp. 3-8
Citations number
26
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Oncology
ISSN journal
0959-8278
Volume
7
Issue
1
Year of publication
1998
Pages
3 - 8
Database
ISI
SICI code
0959-8278(1998)7:1<3:FAVAHC>2.0.ZU;2-V
Abstract
A large body of evidence indicates that high intakes of fruit and vege tables are associated with a reduced risk of cancer at several sites. The association is generally most marked for epithelial cancers, appar ently stronger for those of the digestive and respiratory tracts, and somewhat weaker for hormone-related cancers. The relationship between frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruit and cancer risk was a nalysed using data from a series of case-control studies conducted in northern Italy since 1983. The relative risks (RRs) for most common ne oplasms ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 for the highest compared with the lowes t tertile of vegetable intake. Protective effects were highest for epi thelial neoplasms, but were also observed for hormone-related neoplasm s. Fruit was related to reduced RRs for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, larynx, as well as of the urinary tract . There was a specific and consistent pattern of protection by tomatoe s, a typical Mediterranean food, with RRs between 0.4 and 0.7, most no tably for gastrointestinal neoplasms. No significant association was o bserved between fruit and vegetable consumption and non-epithelial lym phoid neoplasms. For digestive tract cancer, population attributable r isks for low intake of fresh vegetables and fruit ranged from 15 to 40 % of all cases in this Mediterranean population. Combined with tobacco and alcohol, the population attributable risks exceeded 85% for men a nd 55% for women for upper digestive and respiratory tract neoplasms. Thus, from a public health viewpoint, epidemiological evidence indicat es that a substantial reduction in epithelial cancer risk can be obtai ned by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. (C) 1998 Rapid Scie nce Ltd.