THE ROLE OF DNA IN THE MECHANISM OF NF-KAPPA-B DIMER FORMATION - CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF THE DIMERIZATION DOMAINS OF THE P50 AND P65 SUBUNITS

Citation
Db. Huang et al., THE ROLE OF DNA IN THE MECHANISM OF NF-KAPPA-B DIMER FORMATION - CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF THE DIMERIZATION DOMAINS OF THE P50 AND P65 SUBUNITS, Structure, 5(11), 1997, pp. 1427-1436
Citations number
14
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Journal title
ISSN journal
0969-2126
Volume
5
Issue
11
Year of publication
1997
Pages
1427 - 1436
Database
ISI
SICI code
0969-2126(1997)5:11<1427:TRODIT>2.0.ZU;2-L
Abstract
Background: Members of the rel/NF kappa B family of transcription fact ors play a vital role in the regulation of rapid cellular responses, s uch as those required to fight infection or react to cellular stress. Members of this family of proteins form home-and heterodimers with dif fering affinities for dimerization. They share a structural motif know n as the rel homology region (RHR), the C-terminal one third of which mediates protein dimerization. Crystal structures of the rel/NF kappa B family members p50 and p65 in their DNA-bound homodimeric form have been solved. These structures showed that the residues from the dimeri zation domains of both p50 and p65 participate in DNA binding and that the DNA-protein and protein dimerization surfaces form one continuous overlapping interface. We desired to investigate the contribution of DNA to NF kappa B dimerization and to identify the mechanism for the s elective association of rel/NF kappa B family peptides into transcript ionally active dimers. Results: We report here the crystal structures of the dimerization domains of murine p50 and p65 at 2.2 Angstrom and 2.0 Angstrom resolution, respectively. A comparison of these two struc tures suggests that conservative amino acid changes at three positions are responsible for the differences in their dimer interfaces. The pr esence of the target DNA does not change the dimer interface of either protein in any significant manner. Conclusions: These two structures suggest that the rel/NF kappa B family of transcription factors use on ly a few conservative changes in their amino acid sequences to form a host of dimers with varying affinities for dimerization. Amino acids a t positions corresponding to 254, 267, and 307 of murine p50, function as primary determinants for the observed differences in dimerization affinity. The DNA-contacting charged amino acid sidechains from the di merization domains are held in a similar conformation in both the DNA- bound and free states, therefore, no major structural rearrangement is required to bring these residues into contact with the DNA.